Navigating the Shadows: A Deep Dive into Prolonged Cyber Intrusions


In recent years, the world has witnessed a disturbing trend – major organizations falling victim to cyberattacks that persist for extended periods. These breaches, lasting years rather than mere moments, have left both cybersecurity experts and the general public baffled. Organizations boasting robust IT teams and substantial investments in cybersecurity have been forced to admit that hackers roamed their networks, often undetected. This phenomenon prompts a critical examination of the deeply entrenched issues that not only enable such attacks but also hinder their swift detection and containment.


The realm of cybersecurity is marked by a broad spectrum of threats, varying in severity and sophistication. From minor intrusions to the most insidious of breaches, the world has seen it all. Small businesses and industry giants alike have fallen prey to hackers, whose motivations range from stealing sensitive data to mere pranks. These cybercriminals could be state-sponsored operatives or solitary individuals operating from their bedrooms. Their tools include malware, ransomware, botnets, and more. Yet, among this array of threats, one type of breach stands out as the most alarming – breaches that persist for years.

Recent revelations concerning major players like GoDaddy and News Corp have shaken the cybersecurity landscape. These organizations, known for their extensive IT resources and substantial cybersecurity budgets, have reluctantly admitted that hackers lurked within their IT infrastructures for extended periods, often going unnoticed. The perplexing question that arises is: how could entities of such size and stature allow these breaches to continue for so long?

This in-depth investigation delves into the critical initial stages of cyber infiltration, a pivotal moment where cybercriminals employ sophisticated strategies to gain access to an organization’s network while evading detection mechanisms. The journey begins by shedding light on the intricate tactics and methods employed by these hackers during the formative days of a breach. This period is marked by meticulous observation and covert maneuvering within an organization’s digital domain, all conducted with the utmost discretion to ensure their presence remains concealed from security systems and vigilant defenders.

Deep Dive into Prolonged Cyber Intrusions

1. Infiltrating the Fortress: Initial Access Challenges 

The first step for any cybercriminal embarking on a long-term hack is to find a way into the target’s network. Even when organizations implement stringent security measures, there is usually a single entry point. Whether attackers exploit vulnerabilities, use initial access brokers (IABs), or employ compromised employee credentials – often the most effective method – their goal is to infiltrate undetected.

2. The Art of Subterfuge: Early Breach Stages

During the initial days of a breach, hackers adopt a cautious approach, primarily observing the organization’s activities and employee behaviors. They meticulously study the various processes executed by staff during their daily routines and leverage this knowledge to navigate the network surreptitiously. Intrusive actions, such as data exfiltration or vulnerability exploits, are postponed until they can seamlessly blend into the organization’s network traffic, avoiding detection.

3. Remaining Stealthy: Two Covert Approaches

Hackers employ one of two primary methods to remain concealed for prolonged periods. The first involves using genuinely compromised credentials to mimic an employee’s usual behavior, such as accessing files and logging in and out from familiar locations and times. This method, increasingly common due to social engineering, phishing attacks, and IABs, proves exceptionally challenging to detect, as monitoring software fails to identify deviations from the norm. The second method hinges on exploiting monitoring tools that are inadequately configured to detect irregular account activity, leaving the cybercriminal’s movements difficult to trace.

4. Misconfigurations and Security Lapses

In many instances, misconfigured security controls and poor security practices within organizations play a more significant role in facilitating long-lasting data breaches than the sophistication of the attackers themselves. The absence of a comprehensive and consolidated security architecture often leaves security teams struggling to manage a plethora of tools that fail to interoperate effectively. Short-staffed security teams, coupled with incomplete training on the products in use, further compound the problem. Misconfigurations and missed alerts become inevitable when the right people are unavailable to manage the security infrastructure effectively.

5. The Human Element in Cybersecurity

Despite advanced tools and technologies, the human element remains pivotal in cybersecurity. Skill shortages often stretch cybersecurity teams thin, leaving them with insufficient time to learn how to configure products correctly or triage specific alerts effectively. Furthermore, the importance of providing cybersecurity training to staff is frequently overlooked, resulting in an increase in phishing incidents and other security breaches. The human element often reflects broader organizational shortcomings, as products and teams work in isolation, contributing to the extended timeline for breach remediation.

Mitigation Factors

As the ever-evolving cyber threat landscape continues to pose challenges, it is an acknowledged reality that security breaches will occur. Nevertheless, the concerning trend of breaches persisting for extended periods demands introspection and immediate action. Established cybersecurity best practices, including multi-factor authentication (MFA), least privilege, zero trust principles, and early detection mechanisms, have long been recognized as essential pillars of robust security. However, one must underscore the critical importance of prioritizing timely patch management in the face of continually emerging vulnerabilities. While installing every available software update immediately may not always be feasible, organizations should focus on patches tailored to their specific environments, guided by threat intelligence and news reports to effectively manage their exposure.

The human element, encompassing skill shortages and training gaps, often exposes organizational shortcomings contributing to prolonged breaches. To mitigate these risks, organizations must strive for streamlined security architectures and provide their teams with the requisite skills and resources. Automation and the consolidation of security tools into integrated platforms represent progressive steps in supporting security personnel in their pivotal roles.


In the context of the myriad methods attackers employ to breach organizations, the time taken to detect a breach becomes a pivotal factor. Prolonged detection times serve as indicators of potential security setup deficiencies and underscore the accountability of Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs). In instances where organizations endure breaches for extended durations, regardless of the threat actor’s sophistication, it becomes evident that a radical overhaul of the security framework is imperative. Rather than sympathizing with such cases, addressing the systemic issues enabling these persistent breaches should be the primary focus.


CRITICALSTART® offers a pioneering solution to modern organizational challenges in aligning cyber protection with risk appetite through its Cyber Operations Risk & Response™ platform, award-winning Managed Detection and Response (MDR) services, and a dedicated human-led risk and security team. By providing continuous monitoring, mitigation, maturity assessments, and comprehensive threat intelligence research, they enable businesses to proactively protect critical assets with measurable ROI. Critical Start’s comprehensive approach allows organizations to achieve the highest level of cyber risk reduction for every dollar invested, aligning with their desired levels of risk tolerance.



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